The History & Evolution of Indian art

The History & Evolution of Indian art

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We should not expect something momentous to occur suddenly. There are several steps and processes involved in achieving the current state.

This is also true of art. In particular, the art of India, which has endured numerous kingdoms and thousands of years to arrive where it is today.

Have you ever given any thought to the origins of art in India?

Although experts can't agree on how old Indian art is, most believe it's at least 5,000 years old. Images were painted on cave walls by the earliest humans.

Later, during various dynasties, Indian art incorporated elements from other traditions, ideologies, and aesthetics.

Although traditional Indian art still has its fans, contemporary and abstract styles have become the norm in the country.

The History & Evolution of Indian art

Cave paintings and carvings on rocks from the Stone Age have been discovered by archaeologists in India. 

The petroglyphs in Bhimbetka in central India are the oldest known such examples, dating back at least 290,000 years. 

Animals and people continued to be depicted in rock art through the medium of cave paintings. These paintings first appeared around 7000 BCE.

The northwest region of Pakistan, now known as Afghanistan, was the centre of the advanced Indus Valley Civilization beginning in the second century B.C. The Harappan period saw the development of a more complex civilisation. 

Art from India's Indus Valley Civilization, which flourished from about 3200 to 1200 CE, has been shown to reflect the region's scientific and cultural developments of the time. 

Rock paintings and Temple Arts both have their origins in this time period. Between 2500 and 1800 BCE, the people of the Indus valley civilization created the oldest sculptural examples of Indian art. They were miniature sculptures made of terracotta and bronze that depicted various animals and human poses, such as cows, monkeys, and dancers.

Sometime around the sixth century BCE, Buddhism was founded in India. Stone and bronze sculptures were created by religious artisans. 

They also created some of the finest examples of Indian cave art, including elaborate stone temples adorned with Greek-style columns and statues. The sculpture became widespread among Indian Buddhists and Hindus in the fifth century CE. 

Throughout the years, Hinduism remained the primary inspiration for sculptures of Shiva and other deities, as well as for the construction of enormous stone temples like the Kandariya Mahadeva Temple, which was erected in northern India in the 11th century.

The gradual conquest of India by Muslims who established a number of Islamic states in the 12th century. 

After the Mughal Empire was founded in the 16th century, Islam steadily rose to prominence in India. The Mughals and other Islamic conquerors brought with them the wonderful cultural influences of Islam. 

The Mughal Empire, which ruled India from the 16th until the mid-19th century, had a profound impact on the country's aesthetic, particularly in the visual arts. The buildings and structures of the time, such as the Taj Mahal, bear witness to their impact.

The advent of Vasco da Gama at the end of the 15th century, who created a direct contact with India for trade, was a watershed moment in the history of Indian art, which occurred during the western influence on the country's heritage. France, the Netherlands, Denmark, and England all started enabling trade with India at different points throughout the 17th century. 

In the eighteenth century, once the Marathas were overthrown, European powers began making inroads into India. After defeating Tipu Sultan, the British were able to expand their control, and by the middle of the 19th century, the entire country was ruled by the British Empire. You may still see traces of the western and European influence on India's culture and art from that era. 

The result was an amalgamation of native aesthetic practices and global trends. To appeal to European consumers, a romanticized Indian style emerged that emphasized the grandeur of traditional ornamentation. 

On August 15th, 1947, after decades of British control, India declared its independence. The country went through a lengthy era of struggle, marked by battles, invasions, oppression, struggle, independence, and the evolution of culture, all of which left their mark on Indian art and culture's history.

The United States saw the dawn of a new artistic movement with the arrival of Pop art. Modern thought and abstract art also had an impact on India.

The 20th century produced several notable figures, including M.F. Hussain, Tyeb Mehta, S.H. Raza, Amrita Shergil, and many others.

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